Smoke generator carrier, smoke generator vehicle
CHEMICAL WARFARE VEHICLES
To support the mechanized flame throwers in the forward combat areas, a number of M548 cargo carriers were modified as resupply vehicles. Steel armor 1/4 inch thick was added to the hull and an armored cab was installed with windshields 21/4 inches thick. Designated as the XM45E1, the vehicle was intended to mix and transfer thickened fuel and compressed air to the mechanized flame throwers. A power take-off was added to drive an air compressor and the vehicle cooling system was modified to cool the compressor and heat the fuel during mixing. A .50 caliber machine gun was mounted over the driving compartment (vehicle T114).
The Ml059 smoke generator carrier was based upon the M113A2 armored personnel carrier. It was modified to carry a single Ml57 smoke generator set consisting of two M54 smoke generators. The latter were mounted on the roof of the vehicle with armor protection. A 120 gallon tank inside the vehicle supplied fog oil for the smoke generators for about one hour without refueling. The two M54 smoke generators used MOGAS to fuel a pulse jet engine and produce heat to vaporize the fog oil.
When the vaporized oil was released into the air, it condensed to form large clouds of white, visual obscurant, smoke. The M1059 was manned by a crew of three consisting of the commander, the driver, and the smoke generator operator. Remote controls permitted operation of the smoke generators from inside the vehicle. Fielding of the M1059 began in 1988 and was complete in 1990 for about 275 vehicles.
The Ml059A3 was an upgraded version of the Ml059 smoke generator carrier. The new vehicle was based upon the M113A3 armored personnel carrier incorporating the RISE power package. Like the M113A3,it was fitted with the external fuel tanks. The M1059A3 utilized the M157A2 smoke generator vehicle set which produced multi-fuel options including diesel for smoke generation. The M1059A3 smoke generator carrier were classified as Standard A on 15 December 1994.
In early 1992, the U.S. Army initiated a project to investigate a new type of smoke generator vehicle. Referred to as the larae area mobile Drotected smoke svstem (LAMPSS), it was to be capable of tailoring the smoke it produced for specific screening purposes. For example, to defeat infrared sighting equipment, thermal viewers, or image intensifiers, carbon particles were injected into the oil that was used to create the smoke. Another version was intended to provide a screen against millimeter wave seekers on some guided weapons.
A demonstration vehicle was assembled in 45 days at the Red River Army Depot by converting an M901 improved TOW vehicle. The TOW launcher was replaced by an XM254 launcher for 38 2.75 inch Hydra-70 smoke rockets. These smoke rockets were intended to augment screens projected by mortars or the field artillery. In addition, a turbine smoke generator was capable of providing 90 minutes of visual or 30 minutes of infrared screening without refueling. The vehicle was operated by the same three man crew as the Ml059.
The LAMPSS was now designated as the XM1101 and four prototypes were authorized for further evaluation. These vehicles were to be powered by the 350 horsepower 6V53TA engine with the Allison X200-4A transmission using the new driver's controls. These systems were road tested for over 5,000 miles at the Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. However, the project was suspended in October 1993 (M113A1 armored personnel carrier).
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